Unit 1

1. Define cell doctrine. Describe Schleiden and Schwann's cell theory and Virchow's cell lineage theory. Also define a cell.

2. Identify the main structural parts of a generalized prokaryotic cell like E. coli, and of an eukaryotic cell and describe their major functions.

3. Discuss morphological variation among different types of eukaryotic cells.   Differentiate a prokaryotic cell from an eukaryotic cell. Compare the similarities and differences between these two types of cells. Describe the two types of prokaryotic cells.

4. Describe the differences between inorganic and organic components of the cell.   Discuss why water is a vital compound in the living systems. Know the concentrations of cations and anions in the intracellular fluid and the interstitial fluid.

5. Know the main functions of calcium ions in the cells and in the body. Understand the clinical significance of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia and their effects on the nervous system. Identify reasons for the occurrence of osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Also discuss functions of phosphates in the body and their clinical implications.

6. Learn the types and functions of iron in the body. Describe how iron is involved in blood formation and what are the causes of microcytic anemia and macrocytic anemia. Discuss the functions of copper in the cells and its clinical relevance.  Describe the functions and clinical implications of chromium, iodine, and zinc in the body. What is the relationship of iron and cancer?

7. Identify the different types of organic compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, in and around the cells, and discuss their functions.

8. Describe the energy sources of the liver, heart, muscle, and brain cells under normal and/or abnormal physiological conditions. Discuss ketone metabolism during starvation and uncontrolled diabetic condition.

9. How many types of diabetes exist? What are their characteristics? Describe long term complication of diabetes.  Know what is done for the diabetic patient assessment.

10. Describe other organic compounds such as nucleic acids, ATP, cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP and their functions.

11. Discuss the locations and functions of various types of inclusions in the cell, such as glycogen granules, lipid granules, secretion granules, and various types of pigments. Also identify clinical roles, as they apply.

12. Describe the ultrastructure of mitochondria. Discuss the role of cristae and respiratory stalks in energy production and why mitochondria are known as "power plants" of the cell.

13. Define cell metabolism. Include a discussion of catabolism, anabolism, exergonic and endergonic reactions . Give an overview of the pathways of metabolism, including but not limited to, defining chemical bond energy and its ultimate source, and types of energy that can be used by us humans for the performance of biological work. Also present an overview of cellular respiration.

14. Trace the four stages (pathways) of glucose oxidation in cellular respiration. The end products and yields of glycolysis and Krebs cycle; and the number of NADH, FADH, ATP(GTP), oxygen and carbon dioxide involved in each pathway.

15. Determine the net production of ATP's from complete oxidation of one glucose. Discuss the role of NADH and FADH in the electron transport system (ETS) and oxidative phosphorylation (OP-lation). Also determine the number of ATP's produced by substrate level phosphorylation. Calculate heat production in kcal in coupling and uncoupling of ETS and Op-lation.

16. Define glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, deamination and transamination.

17. Know about multiple varieties of cell-cell signaling methods. Using hormone as the first messe3nger, discuss the various components and their functions in the chain of communication across the membrane. Include the role of G proteins. Are G proteins clinically relevant? Describe how catalytic receptors function.

18.  Discuss how programmed cell death and cell signaling is regulated. What is the difference between apoptosis and necrosis? Apoptosis occurs in what kind of biological processes? Discuss the role of Fas ligand, Fas receptors, procaspases and the caspase cascade in apoptosis.

Unit 2

1. Describe the structure and function of an animal cell nucleus. Know the structures like nuclear envelope, pore complex, various forms of chromatin and nucleolus. Discuss the role of the nucleus as the cell's command center and how the genetic diseases are linked to the functions of nucleus. Define a genome. How many kinds of genomes are there in human cells?

2. Learn about the relationship between gene, DNA and chromosome. Be able to describe, compare, and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA molecules. Understand the structure and function of ribosomes, the roles of A, P and E sites, and the mRNA binding sites on the ribosome. What is a ribozyme? Link the existence of ribozymes with the origin of life.

3. Link the information in #s 1 and 2 with the way genetic information is transmitted from DNA to RNA to protein, and DNA to DNA.

4. Discuss the genetic code, genetic language and genetic sentence. Define a codon. A typical protein-coding gene has which three elements? Discuss in detail the DNA promoter site, its structure and function. Make sure to include the different components of proximal control elements and the core promoter.

5. Learn about transcription. What are the components of a transcription unit, and how are they involved in transcription? Describe the sequence of events that occur in transcription and how is mRNA modified and processed. What is the role of transcription factors in mRNA synthesis? What is the significance of the trailer region in mRNA? Describe the two types of termination signals in transcription. Discuss the role of introns, exons and spliceosomes (snurps) in mRNA processing.

6. Describe the basic structure of transfer RNA and its role in protein synthesis. What is the function of wobble position in tRNA? If a mRNA codon is 5’GCC3’, its counterpart tRNA anticodon would be written as_____?

7. Learn about the rule of base pairing, and the rule of copying the DNA to make mRNA and DNA. Define anticodon and discuss its role in translation. Discuss the mechanism of protein synthesis. Include all four processes, the requirements at each step, and the actual protein assembly. Discuss translation, when it occurs and what the process accomplishes. Don’t forget to see the protein synthesis animation in my web site.

8. Describe the different stages at which protein synthesis can be regulated. Define "induction" and "repression." Discuss the mechanisms by which these occur at the gene level, in light of the lactose operon model. Learn about end-product inhibition. Distinguish between enzyme repression and end-product inhibition. Discuss the five levels of gene regulation.

9. Define the cell cycle and the two periods in the life of an animal's cell cycle. Describe the various phases and the cellular activities in interphase. Describe the three main checkpoints in eukaryotic cell cycle. What is the role of growth factor MPF? If our cells have such elegant checkpoints in the cell cycle, why does cancer occur?

10. Learn about the details of DNA replication process, including Okazaki fragments and RNA primers and the other enzymes involved. What are replicons and replication bubbles? Why is it necessary to synthesize a RNA primer BEFORE DNA replication can begin? Describe the sequence of events and the enzymes involved in DNA repair process. What is the end-replication problem? What are telomeres? What is the function of telomerase enzyme? Since the cancer cells divide indefinitely, and since each cycle of cell division shortens the telomeres, shouldn’t that cause self-destruction of the cancer cells? Then, how do they survive?

11. Discuss the reversal of the central dogma of modern biology, retroviruses, latent proviruses and how they incorporate their genes into the host cell's genome.

12. Distinguish between genes and oncogenes. Learn about how oncogenes become expressed in the transformation of normal healthy human cells to cancer cells, and the factors that are responsible for the expression of oncogenes.

13. Define chromatid, chromatin and chromosomes in light of the events of each stage of mitosis.

14. Discuss how meiosis occurs during gametogenesis. Define the terms bivalent, tetrad, chiasmata, and crossing over. Explain what happens during crossing over. Don’t forget to see the two animations on mitosis and meiosis in the Open Computer Lab in West Hall basement.  Distinguish between haploid and diploid cells. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.

15. Define mutation and describe the various types of mutation. List the factors that cause an increase in mutation rate and their effects. Discuss the effects of chemicals, ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light and the mechanisms by which they cause disease. Discuss how body cells repair a lesion in DNA.

16. Define inborn errors of metabolism. Discuss some of the diseases linked with mutation, their causes, symptoms and possible interventions. Also discuss sickle cell anemia as it applies to mutation.

17. Discuss the molecular and cellular events in carcinogenesis, benign and malignant tumor, metastasis, the epidemiology, and the causes of cancer. Describe the principal types of cancers in humans. Also discuss how cancer can be prevented. Include the role of chiropractic and diet in this regard.

Unit 3

1. Distinguish between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Describe their functions.

2. Describe the ultrastructure of Golgi complex and its role in cell secretion. Include the cis and trans faces of Golgi and their functions. Discuss the role of transition vesicles, and anterograde and retrograde transports. Which proteins are involved in the traffic between secretory vesicles and the target membrane?

3. Differentiate between primary and secondary lysosome. List and describe different functions of lysosome by contrasting autophagy and autolysis. Also discuss factors that contribute to autolysis. Discuss heterophagy and the involvement of lysosome in it. Discuss the relationship of arthritic gout with lysosomal function. Could it be due to deficiency of an enzyme due to mutation?

4. Describe the development of inborn lysosomal storage diseases. Citing the development of Tay Sach's disease, discuss the manifestations of this disease.

5. Discuss how asbestos and silicon exposure can have an adverse effect on lysosomal function and thereby cause disease. Also discuss the role of  liposomes and the "stealth" liposomes.

6. Learn about peroxisomes and their functions. Can humans convert fats to sugars? What is the role of glyoxisomes in this? Is it a good idea to drink diluted solutions of hydrogen peroxide to kill the cancer cells? Discuss in terms of the role of peroxisomes in this respect. As a primary health care provider, should we be doing this?

7. Contrast the structure and functions of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediary filaments. Why are intermediary filaments important for the cell? How can they be useful for diagnosing cancer?

8. What is the microtubule-organizing center in the cell? Describe the structure and function of centriole and basal bodies. Describe the two major motility systems in the cell. Include the role of motor molecules, and how they bring about motion within the cell.

9. Distinguish cilia and flagella on the basis of their structure and function. Describe the structure of their motile elements. Describe the mechanism of ciliary/flagellar movement in light of effective and recovery strokes in their ciliary beat. Understand the role of microtubules, dynein arms and ATP in ciliary movement. Describe the Immotile Cilia Syndrome and the reasons for its development.

10. Describe the (cellular and biochemical) sequence of events following acute hypoxic injury to myocardium. The detection in the blood of which three enzymes is a good indicator of Acute Myocardial Infarction (A.M.I.)? Hospitals use which tests for A.M.I.?

11. Discuss the synthesis and functions of interferon in the body, including the ways it is involved in the antiviral and antitumor activities.

12. Define inflammation. List the five symptoms associated with it. Describe the process of inflammation in detail. Include the chemicals released from the traumatized tissue, the walling-off effect, neutrophilia, leucocytosis, pyogenesis and tissue repair. Discuss the conditions (factors) that can affect tissue repair.

13. Define resistance to disease. Discuss specific and non-specific resistance to disease.

14. Define immunity. Distinguish an antigen from an antibody. List the various characteristics of antigens and antibodies. Also define haptens and antigenic determinant sites.

15. Discuss cellular and humoral immunity and the types of lymphocytes involved. Include the release and functions of lymphokines and lymphotoxins. Know the functions of each type of lymphocyte in defense.

16. What is meant by self-tolerance? Why would an individual develop an autoimuune disease? Cite an example of such a disease.

17. Summarize the steps involved in cell-mediated immunity and bacterial infection.

18. Define allergy (hypersensitivity). Differentiate immediate allergy from delayed allergy and the types of allergens that elicit these two types of allergies. Also describe what happens in an allergic reaction at the cellular level.